dnswl.org

DNS Whitelist – Protect against false positives

Recommended Usage

You may use dnswl.org data to filter however you like, but our general recommendations are:

Skip greylisting for all listed IPs (none - high) All listed hosts are expected to pass greylisting so you are only avoiding delays, not affecting what gets blocked.
Skip blacklisting for all listed IPs (none - high) All listed hosts are known to send legitimate email and should not be blacklisted.
Skip spam filtering for medium and high ranked IPs. These are trusted to send spam rarely enough that they are not worth filtering.
Never skip virus filtering.

Caveat: Greylisting some freemail providers may increase the chance that bulk detectors (Razor/Pyzor/DCC etc) catch some additional spam.

Technical details on how to use dnswl.org


How to query DNSWL

The query must always go to the zone "list.dnswl.org" in standard DNSBL format, ie with a reversed dotted quad IP address. To query whether the IP address "1.2.3.4" is listed, the query would thus be

4.3.2.1.list.dnswl.org

The list contains the standard test entry of 127.0.0.2, which you can also test manually

matthias:~ > host 2.0.0.127.list.dnswl.org
2.0.0.127.list.dnswl.org has address 127.0.10.0

Return codes

The return codes are structured as 127.0.x.y, with "x" indicating the category of an entry and "y" indicating how trustworthy an entry has been judged.

Categories (127.0.X.y):

  • 2 - Financial services
  • 3 - Email Service Providers
  • 4 - Organisations (both for-profit [ie companies] and non-profit)
  • 5 - Service/network providers
  • 6 - Personal/private servers
  • 7 - Travel/leisure industry
  • 8 - Public sector/governments
  • 9 - Media and Tech companies
  • 10 - some special cases
  • 11 - Education, academic
  • 12 - Healthcare
  • 13 - Manufacturing/Industrial
  • 14 - Retail/Wholesale/Services
  • 15 - Email Marketing Providers

Trustworthiness / Score (127.0.x.Y):

  • 0 = none - only avoid outright blocking (eg Hotmail, Yahoo mailservers, -0.1)
  • 1 = low - reduce chance of false positives (-1.0)
  • 2 = medium - make sure to avoid false positives but allow override for clear cases (-10.0)
  • 3 = high - avoid override (-100.0).

The scores in parantheses are typical SpamAssassin scores.

Special return code 127.0.0.255

In cases where your nameserver issues more than 100'000 queries / 24 hours, you may be blocked from further queries. The return code "127.0.0.255" indicates this situation. In this situation, you have the following options:

  • You are sure you are far below 100k queries - then you are likely blocked because you are using a "big" nameserver that is used by many others as well. Within DNS, we can not reliably detect individual users "behind" such a nameserver. Your best option is to set up your own local resolver (which should do full resolution, and not just forward to the same "big" nameserver).
  • You are legitimately above 100k queries - you can get a subscription for dnswl.org data and run your local copy of the zone. See https://subscription.dnswl.org/ for more details.
  • You can turn off your queries to dnswl.org

SpamAssassin Configuration

Please note that as of version 3.2.0, the rules below are included in the SpamAssassin default package. The distribution package for 3.2.0 had a bug that prevented the rules from actually firing (the __RCVD_IN_DNSWL part was missing), but this has been fixed in subsequent versions.

header  __RCVD_IN_DNSWL         eval:check_rbl('dnswl-firsttrusted', 'list.dnswl.org.')
tflags  __RCVD_IN_DNSWL         nice net

header  RCVD_IN_DNSWL_NONE      eval:check_rbl_sub('dnswl-firsttrusted', '^127\.0\.\d+\.0$')
describe RCVD_IN_DNSWL_NONE     Sender listed at http://www.dnswl.org/, no trust
tflags RCVD_IN_DNSWL_NONE       nice net

header  RCVD_IN_DNSWL_LOW       eval:check_rbl_sub('dnswl-firsttrusted', '^127\.0\.\d+\.1$')
describe RCVD_IN_DNSWL_LOW      Sender listed at http://www.dnswl.org/, low trust
tflags RCVD_IN_DNSWL_LOW        nice net

header  RCVD_IN_DNSWL_MED       eval:check_rbl_sub('dnswl-firsttrusted', '^127\.0\.\d+\.2$')
describe RCVD_IN_DNSWL_MED      Sender listed at http://www.dnswl.org/, medium trust
tflags RCVD_IN_DNSWL_MED        nice net

header  RCVD_IN_DNSWL_HI        eval:check_rbl_sub('dnswl-firsttrusted', '^127\.0\.\d+\.3$')
describe RCVD_IN_DNSWL_HI       Sender listed at http://www.dnswl.org/, high trust
tflags RCVD_IN_DNSWL_HI         nice net

score RCVD_IN_DNSWL_LOW         -1
score RCVD_IN_DNSWL_MED         -10
score RCVD_IN_DNSWL_HI          -100

Postfix Configuration

Versions of Postfix prior to Postfix 2.8 require a special file format in order to support whitelists. With Postfix 2.8, two new acccess methods have been implemented: permit_dnswl_client and postscreen_dnsbl_sites.

postscreen_dnsbl_sites allows to weigh black/whitelists. For weighted scores above postscreen_dnsbl_threshold, the message will be rejected. Example configuration:

postscreen_dnsbl_sites =
  highqualityblacklist.example.com*2
  lowerqualityblacklist.example.net
  list.dnswl.org*-5

This example will allow all mail through if it is listed in list.dnswl.org, even if the blacklists combined give a hit. The weights can of course be adjusted and combined with numerous black/whitelsits. If you want to restrict the whitelisting to those with score "low", "med" and "hi", you can use the following pattern:

postscreen_dnsbl_sites =
  ...
  list.dnswl.org=127.0.[0..255].[1..3]*-5

permit_dnswl_client is used in the smtpd_recipient_restrictions with a syntax similar to postscreen_dnsbl_sites. Example to allow all whitelisted clients to connect (ie, full override of blacklisting):

smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
  permit_dnswl_client list.dnswl.org,
  reject_rbl_client someblacklist.example.com,
  permit_mynetworks,
  reject_unauth_destination

To override only for "low", "med" and "hi":

smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
  permit_dnswl_client list.dnswl.org=127.0.[0..255].[1..3],
  reject_rbl_client someblacklist.example.com,
  permit_mynetworks,
  reject_unauth_destination

For Postfix versions prior to 2.8: There are two files that can be used by Postfix. The first file, postfix-dnswl-header, can be used to insert a header indicating the whitelisting. The second file, postfix-dnswl-permit, can be used to override eventual blacklistings ('reject_rbl_client').

The quickest way to use dnswl.org data to override blacklisting is by applying the following in your /etc/postfix/main.cf:

smtpd_recipient_restrictions = ...
     reject_unauth_destination,
     ...
     check_client_access cidr:/etc/postfix/postfix-dnswl-permit,
     ...

Note that reject_unauth_destination must should come before the check_client_access to ensure you do not become an open relay for the whitelisted networks.

Note that download is available for subscribers only since Dec 2010. Please contact us if you can not migrate to Postfix 2.8 and if you can not afford a subscription.

Special thanks to the helpful comments and hints in this thread on the postfix-users mailinglist.

Sendmail

A special "hack" for Sendmail is available at http://ist.uwaterloo.ca/~dkeenan/docs/sendmail-whitelist.html which exempts whitelisted addresses from blacklisting.

Sendmail, alternative solution

Similar to the hack above, open-sendmail has a FEATURE(`anfi/rsdnsbl') to achieve roughly the same: http://open-sendmail.sourceforge.net/.

Exim

The configuration for Exim is probably the most straightforward we have seen so far:

   accept  domains      = +local_domains
           dnslists      = list.dnswl.org
           logwrite      = $sender_host_address is whitelisted

See http://www.immerda.ch/index.php/ServerMailSpamAntivir#Whitelisting for more details.

The following config snippit scans an email for spam unless the sending ip is a medium or high trust level in dnswl.org:

   warn
   ! dnslists = list.dnswl.org&0.0.0.2
   spam = nobody:true

rbldnsd Configuration

If you rsync the rbldnsd-format locally, you can set it up as follows (assuming you have a working rbldnsd setup):

/path/to/rbldnsd -f list.dnswl.org:ip4set:/path/to/rbldnsd-dnswl

Of course you may add more options to rbldnsd, eg specify a user to run as, chroot directory, IP address to bind to etc. - refer to the rbldnsd documentation.

BIND Configuration

Spamhaus has a good explanation on how to use rbldnsd and BIND in a combined setup here.

In order to use the rsync'ed BIND formatted file, adapt the following snippet to your needs in named.conf:

zone "list.dnswl.example.org" {
	type master;
	file "list.dnswl.example.org.zone";
	allow-query{ (use a suitable list); };
	allow-update{ none; };
};

Spamikaze

Spamikaze is an automated spam block system that can also consider whitelists to minimize the risk of false positives.

The Spamikaze website shows how to configure the system in general. In order to use dnswl.org data with Spamikaze, change your spamikaze/config file:

[Mail]
...
WhitelistZones = ... list.dnswl.org

mutt

Put this in your ~/.muttrc you'll get everything colorized by dnswl rank:

color index     red      default   ~h^X-DNSWL:.No$
color index     yellow   default   ~h^X-DNSWL:.none
color index     blue     default   ~h^X-DNSWL:.low
color index     cyan     default   ~h^X-DNSWL:.med
color index     green    default   ~h^X-DNSWL:.hi

This works if you use the Postfix tweaking above, but you can trigger on other tokens (eg those provided by SpamAssassin).

DynaStop

DynaStop is a package for Exim which allows various types of filtering based on IP addresses. It uses dnswl.org data to exclude "known good" mailservers eg from greylisting.

By default, DynaStop puts a customized format of dnswl.org data in /usr/exim/DynaStop.Whitelist.conf; updates are available from http://tanaya.net/DynaStop/DynaStop.WhiteList.conf

SpamTestBuddy

SpamTestBuddy is a simple spam-scoring tool, built to be included through procmail. As of version 0.95 (2007-09-27) SpamTestBuddy supports DNS-based whitelists, and comes with dnswl.org rules pre-configured.

SurgeMail / Netwinsite

In order to use dnswl.org data with the SurgeMail server, add the following entry to surgemail.ini:

g_orbs_list name="list.dnswl.org" action="accept" stamp="3=dnswl_high~2=dnswl_medium~1=dnswl_low~0=dnswl_none"

milter-greylist

The following config snippet will exclude all dnswl.org-listed hosts from greylisting:

dnsrbl "DNSWL" list.dnswl.org 127.0.0.0/16
racl whitelist dnsrbl "DNSWL"

The milter-greylist developers work on a possibility to exclude only certain scores (the "x" in 127.0.x.y) from greylisting. Thanks to Greg Troxel for bringing this up.

qpsmtpd

Add "list.dnswl.org" to the "whitelist_zones" config file and add a line "dns_whitelist_soft" to the plugins file.

Hanno Hecker has provided a "dnswl" plugin with a locally rsync'd DB, available at http://svn.perl.org/qpsmtpd/contrib/vetinari/dnswl

Example setups

A combination of greylisting, SpamAssassin, SpamProbe, image spam filters, DNSWL and virus filtering built around Postfix: http://www.chaosreigns.com/spam/.

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admins@dnswl.org
Please write in english, german or french - answers will be in english or german

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